Do a whois search for your domain here. Look at the nameservers -- that will give you a clue as to where the domain is hosted. If you see nameservers that are similar to...
...those are GoDaddy.
In that case make sure you purchased hosting. If you did was it with the account you are looking in or another. In that case, you may have to contact GoDaddy support to help you sort it out.
From your DNS record is shows your nameservers are with GoDaddy. Did you purchase a hosting account that is not reflected in your dashboard? If so, you need to contact GoDaddy for resolution.
If you did not purchase hosting, you now need to so you can start building your website. GoDaddy has several options for those just starting and learning -- like GoCentral.